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Address:Fulai Mountain Scenic Area, Ju County, Shandong Province
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Postcode:276511

Li Bigong

浮来山名人-莒犁比公画像  
Portrait of Juli Bigong

Juli Bigong, named Mizhou, son of Juquqiugong. Ascended before 576 BC. Before Juli Bigong came to the throne, Ju Guo was even invaded by foreign powers because of improper handling of diplomatic relations. After Li Bigong ascended the throne, he paid attention to handling diplomatic relations and actively participated in alliances and military operations among the princes. He is diligent in politics, develops territory, and fights bravely. According to "Zuo Zhuan", Juli has been in office for 35 years and has participated in the Great Congress for more than 20 times. He has besieged Song with other princes, rescued Chen, and condemned Zheng and Qin. Relief for Song. Through a series of alliances and conquests, Ju's territory has expanded and its national power has greatly increased.

In the autumn of 550 BC, Qi State attacked Ju State. The army of Ju Guo spread the charcoal burned in advance under the city, and Qi army could not enter the city. Li Bigong personally took part in commanding this battle, inspiring the morale, the spirit of the generals of Ju country was strong, the fighting spirit was strong, and the Qi Liang was killed. , Defeated Qi Jun. Li Bi Gong is a generation of monarchs with outstanding achievements in the history of Ju Kingdom.

Jiang Shang

浮来山名人-姜尚画像
Jiang Shang portrait

"Shiji Qi Taigong Family" records: "Tai Gongwang, also from the East China Sea." "Shui Jing Zhu Qi Cheng" said: "East Lu Township is sixty miles northeast of Juzhou. "That is to say people today. Jiang Taigong assisted Zhou to destroy merchants and sealed Qi Jianguo, becoming the first monarch of Qi. He deeply learned the historical lesson of King Shangyu's demise due to greed and corruption, and vigorously advocated the political proposition of "corruption and love for the people". He believes that enlightened monarchs lead by example, learning ancient Yao Shun diligent and frugal, honest and loving people. It is necessary to spread benevolence and justice and serve the people with virtue; respect public opinion and love the people. Only in this way can the people be in the same boat with the monarch and support the monarch.
Jiang Shang advocates a just and clean society. "Officials, those who are faithful to the law and respect for the law, and those who are honest and loving the people will benefit from it." This means that being an official and abiding by the law will increase its value, and being honest and self-disciplined and loving the people will increase the salary.

The Taigong ruled the country, and established the policy of governing the country by "because of its customs, simplifying its rituals, trade and industry, and benefiting from fish and salt" (following its customs and simplifying etiquette. Opening up business and industry, and developing the advantages of the fishery salt industry). In the century of development history, it has been passed down from generation to generation, which has had a huge influence and established the historical status of Qi culture.

Shun

 

 浮来山名人-舜画像
Portrait of Shun

Ju culture has a profound and long-standing history. The rich spiritual connotation of "Patriotic Loyalty, Tolerance and Creation, Reasonableness and Justice, Cultivation of Literature and Self-improvement" has nourished and inspired generations of Judi people.

Shun-benevolence and filial piety, diligent administration for the people

Shun, from the ancient Ju Feng (now Zhucheng) (Mencius "Lilou" records "Shun was born in Zhu Feng, and the people in Dongyi also"). It was the leader of the tribal alliance at the end of the primitive society more than 4,000 years ago in my country, and was respected as one of the five emperors in history.
According to legend, Shun was famous for filial piety when he was 20 years old. Because of his filial piety to his parents who abused and persecuted him, he was praised in his youth. Later, Yao asked Siyue (the head of the princes of the Quartet) for his successor, and Siyue recommended Shun.
During the 28 years of Shun Regency, he lived in thatched cottages like everyone else, eating brown rice, cooking wild vegetables and making soup, wearing burlap in summer, and only adding a piece of deerskin to keep out the cold in winter. His clothes and shoes will never be replaced until they are worn out. Shunqin's politics loves the people, chooses talents, and manages political affairs in an orderly manner. Patrol every five years, inspect the political achievements of the princes, clearly set rewards and punishments, and strengthen the rule of the locality; from time to time, summon the princes to investigate the people's feelings. He devoted himself to the management of floods. As a role model, he dug mountains and rivers, dredged rivers, and finally subdued the flood, so that the people of the world could live and work in peace and contentment.
Legend has it that Shun died in Cangwu's wilderness when he went to the south. Shun is a model of Mingjun. The people support him as if he loves "parents' sun and moon". "Mingde in the world has all started from Emperor Yu".

Luju League

浮来山天下银杏第一树

Lu Gong and Ju Zi will ally under this ginkgo tree

Under the ancient ginkgo tree in Dinglin Temple, there is a stone monument with the inscription "September Xinmao, Gong and Ju Renmeng Yu Fulai. Eight years of hermitage." This is October 1979, the famous calligrapher Wu Zhongqi revisited the float When the book came. The inscription is from "Zuo Zhuan".

Lu Yingong was not afraid to travel long distances, and he condescended to come to Ju, and Yu Fulai Mountain would ally with Juzi. There is a little-known historical story here, which can be seen from the overview of Lu Guo in "Spring and Autumn".

During the Spring and Autumn Period, Julu and the two countries were at odds. Ju is the kingdom of Viscount. However, self-reliance has strong military and diplomatic advantages, and often has frictions with the borders of Lu. "Zuo Zhuan" contains: "Julu contends for a long time" at this time. Ji Guojun marries Lu Ji's daughter Bo Ji. The two countries are married and have a close relationship. Bo Ji has been talented and hard-working since childhood, and he knows how to read books, and sees that Lu and the two countries have long opposed each other. After marrying Ji Ji, the couple is loving, happy, and happy. The only thing that makes Ji Jun puzzled is that Bo Ji often sat alone and sighed, there must be something uncomfortable. The broker asked again and again, and Bo Ji finally opened his mouth to tell the truth: "Bai Ji Bielu, have nothing to do, but Lu Lu and Ju are at odds, and he will be at a lasting trouble. Ji is relieved." : "What should I do? It won't take long for me to let Lu Ju get rid of his grievances." In the winter of the same year, Ji Zibo and Ju Zi met in Mi (now southeast of Changyi County). "Zuo Zhuan" Yin Gong recorded for two years: "Winter, Ji Zibo, Ju Zimeng Yumi, Lu also." That is to say, the issue of the two-nation alliance is: "Yujiko mediates Ju and Lu Ju Zi knew that it was not a good strategy to compete with the neighboring big countries for a long time, but because of his face, he could not take the initiative to express himself. This time, when Zizi came forward to mediate, he pushed the boat down and gave his face to Jizi.
After a period of incubation, Lu Guo also accepted the advice of Ji Jun with the same mentality and agreed to repair it with the Ju Parliamentary Union, but the two countries were inconsistent in their location. First of all, the two countries insisted on meeting in their respective countries and not giving in to each other. After the broker brokered many times, Lu made a concession and agreed to meet in Min Zhongshan (near Yuanyu Village, Dongli Township, Yiyuan County) at the junction of the two countries. But Juzi is still afraid of getting caught in the Lu Kingdom and insists on joining the league in Judi. In the end, Lu Gong was no more than Juzi, that is, he surrendered to float in the eighth year of Yin Gong (71515 BC). This is neither the capital city of Ju country nor the military threat of Lu country. Juzi grandly received Lu Gong here, and the League succeeded. Since then, Ju, Lu, Ji and other countries have maintained good relations and relatively stable relations with other neighboring countries. Therefore, when nobles and monarchs in the neighboring countries of Ju took refuge, they often went to Ju. For example, in the eleventh year of King Zhouzhuang, Uncle Qi Bao gave his son Xiaobai Benju, in the thirteenth year of King Zhouzhuang in the winter and October Tan Zibenju, in the seventeenth year of King Zhouhui, Lu Gongzi celebrated his father Benju, etc., without further description.

Liu Xie and Dinglin Temple in Ju County


千年古刹定林寺

Dinglin Temple

Liu Xie's life can be roughly divided into three stages, excluding his childhood and boyhood: The first stage, "Yishamen Sengyou, living with him for more than ten years", concentrates on studying in Dinglin Temple. The second stage: "At the beginning of the heavenly prison, we were invited to court", Dinglin Temple embarked on a career. In the third stage, "Nei Yu changed his clothes and changed his name to Hui Di" and returned to Dinglin Temple to become a monk. From the study of entering the temple-leaving the temple to become an official-the experience of being a monk in the temple, we can see that Liu Xie's life is closely related to Dinglin Temple.

There are three in Kaodinglin Temple. Two of them are in Zhongshan, named Shangding and Xiadinglin Temples. Shangdinglin Temple was founded in the twelfth year of Liu Song Yuanjia (435 years), when Qiliang of the lower Dinglin Temple was abolished, so the upper Dinglin Temple is often called the Dinglin Temple. This can be called Nandinglin Temple, and there are no traces today. Another place is Fulai Mountain in Ju County, Shandong. It still exists today, and it can be called Beidinglin Temple. Scholars are all aware of Nandinglin Temple, but there are many who do not know Beidinglin Temple.
Liu Xie entered Dinglin Temple and Sengyou's residence, "Different Departments", collated Dingjing scriptures, Fengqi and Huizhen co-authored proofs, and became a monk and renamed Huidi. All these activities are undoubtedly in Nanding Lin Temple. So is Beidinglin Temple related to Liu Xie? It's about Liu Xie's later years, so it is necessary to discuss it carefully.

(One)

To explore the relationship between Liu Xie and Beidinglin Temple, we must first explain that the "Liang Shu" record about the "unexpected death" after Yan He became a monk is not reliable.
"Liang Shu·Liu Xie Zhuan" said: "You and Hui Zhen wrote proofs at Dinglin Temple. After finishing their work, they asked for monkhood, and then burnt their temples to take the oath. Earth. Died in the future." In the "Nanshi Liu Xie Biography", the record of "died in the future" was deleted. "Liang Shu" is available but "Southern History" is not. What is the reason? This is a very noteworthy question.

"Southern History" and "Northern History" were completed in the 4th year of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty (659 years). Compared with "Liangshu", it was only 23 years later. Compared with the eight books of Song, Nanqi, Liang, Chen, Wei, Beiqi, Zhou, and Sui, the "Two History" is only one-half of the sum of the eight books. The compilation of "Two History" began with Master Li and became his son Li Yanshou. Li Yanshou said in his "Preface" that his father "is often separated by Song, Qi, Liang, Chen, Wei, Qi, Zhou, and Sui from the north to the south. . And each country knows that other countries cannot prepare the book, and it is often untrue. They often want to correct it." It can be seen that one of the purposes of Li's father and son compiling the "Two History" is to simplify and correct errors in the history books of the Northern and Southern Dynasties.

After careful review of "Southern History Liu Xie's Biography", there are four changes to the "Liang Shu". First, delete the original text of "Wen Xin Diao Long·Xu Zhi Pian" cited in "Liang Shu".

Second, delete the words "In the early days of the Tianjian, I was invited by the court, the Chinese army Linchuan Wang Hong cited the record room, moved the car to ride the warehouse, Cao joined the army. As a result of the Taimo order, the government has a clear track record. Except Renwei Nankang Wangji The "room" and other judges only said "Liang Tianjian in the middle, and Dongguan Tongshisheren". It is also obvious to change for the sake of saving language.
Third, delete the phrase "Zu Lingzhen, Song Sikong's younger brother". As early as a few decades ago, Mr. Fan Wenlan saw the problem from the difference in the use of names: "The Xiuzhi and the sibling brothers are named after the "zhi", and the names of Yan and ancestors are true, and they are not brothers with the same parents. However, it is undoubtedly that they are both Jingkou people."① Comrade Cheng Tianyou later wrote a special article demonstrating that "Ling Zhen and Xiu Zhi are not only the same parents and brothers, but also not close relatives." If it is wrong, the deletion of "Southern History" is to correct its mistake.

Fourth, delete "unexpected death" records. This record relates to Liu Xie’s year of death, and the birth and death years are very important biographical data in the biography, and no historian will ignore it. Li's deletion of important materials such as "unexpected death" is by no means arbitrary. There are only four words in this record, and the deletion is by no means to save the length of the article, it can only be corrected by the author that it is not true. However, Li's can't know the situation after Yanhe became a monk, but he deleted it and paid for it. This is due to his prudence. In short, the "Liang Shu" record of "died and died" is wrong. Yanhe lived a period of time after he became a monk, but he was not known by the monks and customs of the Southern Dynasty, and thus was not known to historians.

So how long has Liu Xie lived since he became a monk? This involves the time and year of his death.

Regarding the time when Liu Xie became a monk, the researchers' opinions are still inconsistent. Mr. Fan Wenlan had presumed that Yanhe Fengchong and Hui Zhen had written a certificate in Dinglin Temple, and they succeeded in seeking a monk. "The matter should be in the second year of Emperor Wudi's ordinary Yuan." It was impossible for Emperor Xiao Tong of the Ming Dynasty to die before Yanhe became a monk, so Yanhe was born after Zhaoming died. We believe that Fan Laozhi's theory is currently difficult to overthrow, and the hypothesis that Xiao Tong died after Yanhe became a monk is open to question.

Let's start with a survey of Liu Xie's age when he became a monk. Yan He was born around the first year of Emperor Song Ming's first year (465 years), while Xiao Tong died in Emperor Liang Wu's Zhong Datong for three years (53 1 AD). When Zhao Ming died, Yan He was nearly 70 years old. Imagine that in the past seventy years, the wind candles are still in a dying year. Why did you become a monk? What is a monk? Researchers may think that Yan He became a monk because of his frustrated career, or think he even escaped the world by worshipping the Buddha. Comrade Wang Yuanhua said that Yanhe's monkhood was a "depressed situation", "with unspeakable bitterness." ④If it is nearly ancient when he became a monk, he would fall into such a situation, how difficult is it to be a monk, And why do you want to "burn your hair first and swear it yourself?" Yan He spent his life, only being an infantry captain and a member of the Donggong Tongshi. He was neither a court official nor a nobleman. Why do you have to make a vow and ask the court? Although Yanhe made official, "he didn't get the attention of Emperor Liang Wu" ⑤. The reason why he became a monk was to make a vow, which was covered by Prince Zhaoming's "love pick." Zhaoming was dead, then "new palace built, old people without stop" ⑥, there is no need to swear to become a monk. From the above observations, the speculation that Yanhe became a monk after the prince Zhaoming died is inappropriate.

From the Yanhe's deeds after the official inspection. According to the biography of "Liang Shu", Yan He entered the official career from the beginning of the Tianjian, and moved to the infantry captain for about fifteen or six years. If he became a monk after the death of Xiao Tong, it would be fifteen or six years from the move of infantry lieutenant to monk. Or a few years longer. This biography has been written in the first fifteen or sixteen years, why is it so short of the fifteen or sixteen years? From Yanhe's monk Xuxun made an oath and asked the court to see that he must still be on his career before he became a monk. In this biography, there are even records of Feng Chi and Hui Zhen Shamen's written evidence. Is there anything more or similar to the written evidence in the official life of the next fifteen or sixteen years? This is hard to doubt.

Finally, a detailed interpretation of the original text of the "Liang Shu" can also tell that Xi Yan and monk Yu Zhaoming were improper after his death. Before "Moving Infantry Captain, and servanting people as before", the department narrated in chronological order, recording the situation of Yanhe's life experience and official career. The phrase "Prince Zhaoming is good in literature and loves to receive it" just happens to take away this part, and there is no more word afterwards. Zhao Ming's love is a summary, and it has been a non-chronological note. Since then, it has been a matter of inserting Xu Yan and writing "Wen Xin Diao Long" and the book Yu Shen. "Ran Xie is a literary master of Buddhism, Jingshi Temple Pagoda and the famous monk's inscription, and Xie must be invited to make the text." The three sentences refer to his lifetime. Since then, the records about writing a testimony, seeking a monk's family, and changing the name of the service are also time-keeping notes. Looking at the full text, the Scripture Pass and the Infantry Commander are closely connected in terms of context, and they should also be closely linked in time. Therefore, it was not appropriate to have a family affairs shortly after the infantry captain was moved, but after the death of Prince Zhaoming.

In view of the above reasons, we said from Fan Laozhi that Ding Yanhe was a monk in the second year of Emperor Liang Wu's ordinary Yuan. That is 520 or 521 AD.

Regarding the year of Yanhe’s death, Fan Lao did not have doubts when he noted "Wenxin Diaolong" decades ago, and the record of "Unexpected Death" in the "Liangshu" Biography, and it was presumed that it was in the ordinary two years . In recent years, there have been new developments in the determination of Liu Xie’s death: Comrade Li Qingjia advocated "determining his death in the four years of Zhongdatong, that is, in 532 AD." ⑦; Mr. Yang Mingzhao thought: The death of a person is not the same as Datong in the next four years."ˆThis is a new view, and it is the development of Yanhe's exploration of the death year. According to this, Norihiko died between 532 and 539 AD, which was more than ten years longer than the old saying of "died unexpectedly".

Yanhe became a monk in the second year of Yuanyuan. If he died between 532 and 539, there are still more than ten years in the history, and the history books are missing. Where is he and what did he do? During our inspection, Yanhe returned to his ancestral home in Juxian County shortly after he became a monk, founded Dinglin Temple in Fulai Mountain, and presided over the Buddhist cause here.

(two)

To prove that Liu Xie returned to Ju to create and preside over the Beidinglin Temple, he must first prove that the temple was created at the same time as Yanhe's monk.

Beidinglin Temple is on Fulai Mountain. Fulai Mountain is located 8.9 kilometers west of the county seat of today's Ju County. Dinglin Temple is built on top of the mountain. There are large white fruit trees in the temple, which has been more than three thousand years. Behind the tree is the Great Hall (Buddha Hall) of Dinglin Temple. After this building climbed up the mountain, namely the three churches. The temple, building and hall are all on the central axis and are the main building of the temple. The temple is 95 meters long from north to south, 52 meters wide from east to west, and most of the existing buildings are heavily restored. The appearance and scale before the Ming Dynasty are hard to know.

定林寺
Dinglin Temple

Four large monuments still exist in front of the big white fruit tree. One is the first year of the Apocalypse (1621) "Rebuilding the Fulai Mountain Dinglin Temple. Mountain Gate Corridor". The second is Wanli's thirty-five years (1607) "Reconstruction of Dinglin Temple". Three is the Seventh Year of Wanli (1579), "Rebuilding the Buddhist Temple of Dinglin Temple", most of the inscriptions are clear, which said: "Sishan, famous mountains; temples, famous temples." Fourth, Jiajing twenty-four years (1545 ) In the "Reconstruction of Dinglin Temple", the erosion of the stele is serious, but there are still sentences that can be read into the sentence. Among them, the sentence "The Dinglin Temple in the west of Jujun City, the ancient temple is built" is quite clear. Since the Ming people have called them "famous temples" and "ancient temples", it can be seen that they have a long history. Volume 46 of "Reconstruction of Juzhi": "In the first year of Ming Hongxi (1425), Tinglin Temple monks were given permission to wait for twenty-one people to die." It can be seen that it was 120 years before Jiajing's twenty-fourth year of reconstruction Dinglin Temple is already very famous, and its creation must be far before.

"Reconstruction of Juzhi" (completed in 1935), 51 volumes, one stone column excavated from Fulai Mountain In January, the three abbots of the Sanmenkou were repaired in English." The first year of Jingkang was 1126 AD, when the Northern Song Dynasty died.

However, this "ancient temple" is not only the "ancient" to the Song Dynasty, underground excavation proves that the Tang Dynasty already has this temple. In 1958, more than 20 pieces of stone Buddha heads, feet, and fingers were excavated about 30 meters southwest of the Jinglou Building of this school (lost during the Cultural Revolution), and cultural relic workers inferred it as a relic of the Tang Dynasty based on the carving style.

There are ruins of ancient bricks and kilns outside Dinglin Temple. Before the Cultural Revolution, more than ten pieces of tile tiles were found from here, which were inferred to be relics before the Tang Dynasty, but they are all lost. Fortunately, after the "Cultural Revolution" four pieces were found, including a lotus pattern tile file, which was inferred by the cultural relics workers as a relic before the Tang Dynasty, based on the fact that the lotus tile file was only seen before the Tang Dynasty. From this point of view, the lack of creativity in Dinglin Temple must be before the Tang Dynasty.

There is a monument of the thirteenth year of the Tongzhi reign in Qing Dynasty (1874 of the ancient Liufang in 1874) in the temple, which was established to rebuild the Dinglin Temple. The inscription is written by the administrative minister of Shandong according to Chang Geng, the governor of Shandong. The following two points are confirmed.

1. At the same time as the unearthed stone Buddha head, feet, and fingers mentioned above, a stone Buddha body was unearthed, with no head, foot, and about one meter high. It is inferred from the lines of the Southern and Northern Dynasties according to its clothing lines. This thing unfortunately also disappeared in a decade of unrest.

2. The volume of "Reconstruction of Juzhi" is fifty years old. There are "Six Man-made Portraits of Dinglin Temple", a remnant stone of Buddha. No years. The original rubbings are difficult to find today, but fortunately, <Re-editing Juzhi> has been copied as an appendix. Twenty-seven words remain in the text:
The grandson of the big elephant The big deer of the big oak The king of the big oak
The Lord of Yuanzhai, Yuan Yuan

"Reconstruction of Juzhi" Cloud: The Buddha seat is eight inches thick, two feet and two inches long, with six characters and a book. ......Calligraphy is strong, with the word "zhai" as "Qi". According to Wei Qijian's inscriptions, there are many different styles of books, such as "Yang Dayan's Making of Oak", "Wei Lingzang's Statue", "Daohu's Statue", and the foremost "Goluozu Statue", etc . This stone should be a thing of the Northern Qi Dynasty.

"The Portrait of Yang Dayan", "The Statue of Wei Lingzang", "The Statue of Daofu" and so on, there is much to know, no need to repeat; only the "Goluozu Statue" is the cultural relics of Ju, and there are few who know, among them" Joe "made" **", "Qi" made "斊", "Wu" made "**", and so on. It is Juzhi's inference. Beiqi (551-577) was very close to Yanhe's death. If it was the first year of Beiqi, it would be only a decade or two.

Wang Chang said in the "General Commentary on the Statues of the Northern Dynasty Statues": "Whoever contributes to the statue, the sun image master, the vice image master, the east and west north and south image master, the heart of the heart, all open the light master, the light master, Tiangong master, south On the north side, it can be seen as the Lord, Tan Yue, Lord Oak, Lord Shiga, Lord Buddha of Infinite Life, Lord Tan Tan Yue, Lord Lord, all like Lord, like Zhai Lord, Lord Zhai Zhai"⑨. It can be seen from this that the "Six Artificial Images of Dinglin Temple", since it is called "Large Elephant Master", "Dai Zhai Lord", and "Guangming Lord", must be "funded statue creators", not the founders of the temple. Then this stone system was built after Dinglin Temple was built, and the temple must be built before. If Dinglin Temple to Wang Yuan and others had a history of thirty or forty years when they funded the statue, its creation was suitable for Liang Wu ordinary middle school to Lu Datong middle school (523--532) ), Shi Yanhe is a monk and still alive.
Are the above evidence and inference reliable? Ming Jiajing's "Qingzhou Mansion" Volume 16 "Xian Shi Zhuan" has the following records:
Tan Guan, from Juzhou. He became a monk at the age of seven and Mu Xinfayu.

Return to Chengyuan and consider the rock ravine. Sixteen special wins, pay attention. The Divine Curse was widely dispelled and the evil obstacles were eliminated. Renshou is middle-aged, and he was sent to the Dinglin Temple in Benzhou. (Omitted below)

Renshou (601-604) was the year number of Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty, and Ming Jiajing was nearly a thousand years away from this time, which proved to be weak. However, such records in the local chronicles are not falsified, and are mostly copied from ancient books. Examining the records of "Qingzhou Mansion", it was copied from Volume 36 of "Continued High Monk Biography" "Pan Guan Zhuan"⑩. This piece of information is very important for our argument.

Shi Tanguan, a native of Juzhou. He became a monk at the age of seven and Mu Xinfayu. After he entered the tool, he sought the righteous door, partializing the facts, dissolving the mystery, and then using wisdom to solve the chaos. It is back to Chengyuan, worrying about the rock ravine. Sixteen special wins, pay attention. The Divine Curse was widely dispelled and the evil obstacles were eliminated. Gao Wen Zhou Yuan, and Yu Tianque. At the beginning of the Emperor's Emperor, the next call for conscription. Yanren Jingshi lives in Daxingshan. ......Renshou is middle-aged, and he is sent to benefit the Dinglin Temple in Benzhou. (Omitted below) The author of the book Daoxuan 596-667) is a famous monk in the history of Chinese Buddhism. "Continued High Monk Biography" was written in the 19th year of Emperor Taizong's Zhenguan (645 years), only forty years from Renshouzhong, and the basic facts of Tan Guan sent relics are credible. From this record, we can know: First, Tan Guan is a "Juzhou native", and it is beneficial to "Benzhou Dinglin Temple", so it must be the North Dinglin Temple. Second, Beidinglin Temple has been famous throughout the country during Sui Renshou's life. This can be proved by the act of sending the relics by Emperor Wen Jian of Sui Dynasty, if the temple is not a famous temple, why would the emperor know it? Why is it better to send relics than to others?
Tan Guan was a well-known Chengshi teacher in the Sui Dynasty. He is a Ju, and his monk may be in Dinglin Temple in Honshu. Even if his monk is not in Dinglin Temple, he must know this "Ancient Temple" and "Famous Temple" of "Gao Wen Zhou Yuan, Yu Tianque". Pushed by Renshou for more than 20 years.

Buddhism suffered a devastating blow. Jiande three years (574 years). "Recommendation of Zhou Wu Emperor Taoist Zhang Bin, abolition of Buddhism", "the next three years (the sixth year of Jiande, the first year of Beiqi Chengguang)" extinguished the North Qi. The next edict:'The Confucianism of the Six Classics is appropriate in the world, so it must be preserved. Buddhists must devote their money to destruction. The monks and nuns have also returned to customs, with 3 million people registered as soldiers and civilians, and property officials. When Shimen Jingsong and other three hundred people fled to the Southern Dynasties." 11 Zhou Mianqi revived Buddhism, "it is suspected that the prime minister Yang Jian. Therefore, Buddhism reappears, and the Sui Lord is also 12. "" is the great prosperity of Buddhism has been a matter of the Sui Dynasty. If the Beidinglin Temple was built in the Sui Dynasty, it was difficult to become a famous temple in Gaowen and Zhouyuan in the past ten years. This temple was built between the Sui Dynasty. Despite the devastating destruction of Emperor Zhou Wu’s destruction of the Buddha, it became a famous temple within a decade or two, indicating that this temple must have been of considerable scale and well-known before Zhou Wu destroyed the Buddha. Juzhi is a remote place, and the development of Dinglin Temple is not easy. It takes decades to create a famous temple. Pushing up like this, the establishment of Dinglin Temple should be within a short time after Yanhe became a monk.

Looking at the above, it can be seen that whether it is inferred from the ruins in the temple or from the analysis of the literature records, it is proved that the creation of the Dinglin Temple in Ju County coincided with the monk of Yanhe.
A
(three)

The above has successively demonstrated that Liu Xie did not "didn't die" after she became a monk, but lived for more than ten years; the creation of Dinglin Temple in Ju County coincided with Yanhe’s monkhood. The relationship between Liu Xie and Dinglin Temple in Ju County can be deduced below.

Qing Jiaqing's "Juzhou Chronicle" Volume Yiyun: Fulai Mountain "Twenty Miles to the West of the City... There is Dinglin Temple, that is, the Buddhist Sutra of Liu Xie School, and the Retreat of Tan Guan." According to this, it is ambiguous. Then it is not floating; if it is said that Yanhe returned to Juju to verify the classics, it is not stated. Nineteenth volume of "Reconstruction of Juzhi":

"Liang Shu·Liu Xie's Biography"...... (Description of the Department of Biography) No relation to Dinglin Temple from Ju County...But the old records contain Sui Renshou, Shi Tanguan sent relics to Dinglin Temple and Zhou Duan Folk giant sea begling deserves a thing, like Dinglin of Ju... Yanhe returned to Ju after the school of Zhongshan, won by floating, and created the temple name, named Dinglin...According to this, Dinglin of Ju is a concept Send to the relic office, Fei Yanhe's Dinglin Temple. Here it is clear: the deeds contained in a "Liang Shu" have nothing to do with Dinglin Temple in Ju County. "Feiyanhe Dinglin Temple is also a school classic", Gai refers to the school of Nandinglin before he became a monk. Two were founded by Nahiko Hara of Beidinglin Temple. "Yan He returned to Ju after schooling in Zhongshan", that is, he finished the monk with Hui Zhen and returned to Ju County.

The expression "Juzhi" is not a new creation in recent times. In the courtyard of the three churches of Dinglin Temple, there is a lying stele in the first year of Guangxu (1875), engraved with eight poems floating on it, written by Zhang Zhuxi (character Wenzhou) of Yizheng and Fengzheng; Le Quan) wrote a small note. There are clouds in the record:

Floating came as a secret place for Juxi. Textual research, founded by Dinglin Temple Shi Xiaoliang Liu Sheren Yanhe. Sheren retires from the old age, and the Dingjing scriptures are hidden here. The words are unambiguous; the Fulaishan Dinglin Temple was actually created by Liu Xie, and he once "calibrated the scriptures" in the temple, after his "old retreat". Although the specific content of his "examination history" is unclear, it is difficult to know the history of his examination, but from the large amount of historical materials and relics since the Tang and Song Dynasties mentioned above, Li's should be well-founded.

Yanhe returned to Ju to build a monastery, and there are still some ruins in the monastery, which is sufficient evidence. There are three main points to choose the main points.

First, the ruins of Yanhe Tomb Tower.

The site of Liu Xie's tomb pagoda, west of Dinglin Temple, has collapsed. We say this on two grounds. First, about 100 meters away from the Wenxin Pavilion in the southwestern part of Guaishiyu, on the cliff there is an inscription from the tenth year of Kangxi (1 67 1 year): "Tiefo Mercy returns to the mansion, and Yanhe monument breaks down the tomb . "(Today, some handwritings such as "Ju" have been eroded and are not easy to recognize) It is not far from the site of Yanhe Tomb Tower. With his time in mind, Gai Wei felt that the monastery was damaged by the Kangxi seven-year earthquake. Second, the last abbot of Dinglin Temple became a Buddhist monk (died around 1935). He repeatedly pointed to the site of Yanhe's tomb pagoda, which was located more than a hundred steps west of the temple. Sun Xueshu (97 years old), the old man of Xingjiazhuang, who came to the mountain, and Yan Guoxiang (79), a retired old doctor, are those who have heard the story and are still alive. Yan and Sun also personally saw Buddha Cheng doing rituals in front of the ruins of the tomb to commemorate it. This is the ordinance of the Ching Ming Festival and the Bathing Buddha Festival (Yan said on the eighth day of the fourth lunar month). Press: Buddha Cheng is the presiding monk, what he said should be based, otherwise why should he repeatedly sue his friends? From the point of view of their rational Buddhist affairs, if they are hypocritical, why are they so religious? Moreover, its statement coincides with the title chanting of the Strange Stone Valley more than three hundred years ago, and the site of Zeyan and Tomb Tower is not a posterity.

Second, the ancient stone tortoise stele.

There is an ancient relic under the white ginkgo tree in the temple, which is a tortoise stele, and the erosion is quite serious. According to cultural relics workers, this is a relic from before the Tang Dynasty, which is probably the old of the Northern and Southern Dynasties. Or because it was made when the temple was built for this purpose, it was based on the fact that Buddha Cheng repeatedly told his friends solemnly that it originally contained the monument to create the Dinglin Temple of Fulai Mountain written by Liu Xie. If this stele is an old thing before the Tang Dynasty, it may be originally contained "Yanhe Stele". How can the Buddha's proverbial gouge be undocumented? Or from the monk's family, it is so sure. Evidence of the Buddha's theory and the strange chanting of the title of Shishiyu proves to be credible. "Yanhe Monument Breaks the Derelict Grave", the inscribed singers more than three hundred years ago have confirmed that "Yanhe Monument" did exist.
Third, "Xiangshan Tree" stone inscription.

There is a large stone on the strange stone valley engraved with "Xiangshan tree" three seal characters, large diameter ruler, and now the Wenxin Pavilion is built on the stone. There are five-character inscriptions, three inches in diameter, without years. The last "inscription" is still clear, and the first four characters are not easy to recognize. According to Yan Yanhe who once entered the official career, he retired from the idle customs and changed his name to Huidi. Therefore, "Hidden Official" is its identity, "Hui Di" is the title of its legal name, the five-character title is very reasonable, and it should be undoubtedly the title of Yanhe.
As for the meaning of the word "Xiangshanshu", there are two main points. One said that it refers to the big white fruit tree, saying its longevity and Shan Qi. Another said that the three characters refer to one thing: "elephant", "community", which means that there are many statues in the temple. The mountain comes to float, and the tree refers to Ginkgo. These three together form a floating scenery. Comparing the two, it is said to be better. According to the latter, the statues in the temple must be fired at the time, and Yanhe felt the questions were cleaned up.

The above-mentioned Yanhe tomb tower ruins, ancient tortoise turtle monument ("Yanhe Monument"), "Xiangshan Tree" stone carvings and other three relics, when taken together, it can be proved that Liu Xie once returned to Ju in his later years and founded and hosted it in Fulaishan This Beidinglin Temple.

Admittedly, in such an ancient temple, three kinds of ruins cannot be considered as many. However, if the following two points are considered, it will not be easy to deny the fact that Yan and Huiju built the temple because the ruins are not hot. First, the years are long. It has been a hundred years since Yanhe became a monk, and the existence of the three kinds of ruins is not easy. He had lived in Nandinglin Temple for more than ten years, and then he served as a monk there, but are there still relics today? Second, it was repeatedly destroyed. The Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty destroyed the Buddha more than thirty years after Yanhe's death. Dinglin Temple will not be spared. The ancient Buddha body of the Northern and Southern Dynasties unearthed in 1958 mentioned above is probably a witness. During the year of Emperor Wuzong's Huichang era, the Buddhist temple was devastated. The North Dinglin Temple was in danger of looting. More than 20 pieces of Tang dynasty stone Buddha heads, feet, and fingers unearthed in the monastery are likely to be traces of this robbery. Song Huizong believed in religion and changed the temple to a view, which gave a great blow to Buddhism. How can the Beidinglin Temple be an exception? Therefore, it is a blessing that the ancient Beidinglin Temple can retain three kinds of ruins from its creation. The years are long and the disasters are repeated, and these remains can still be preserved. It is even more obvious that Yanhe Huiju built the temple.

The clues can also be seen from the temple name itself. This temple in Ju County has the same name as the historical Zhongshan Mountain and Xia Dinglin Temple. I am afraid it cannot be explained by coincidence. In addition, the Nandinglin Temple was founded in the front, and the North Dinglin Temple appeared in the back. Therefore, the name of the temple can only be Beixuenan, not the other way around. If this temple was not founded by Yanhe, why was it named Dinglin? Gai Yanhe was closely related to Nandinglin Temple before he became a monk, and he became a monk in this temple. Therefore, after returning to Ju County, he still missed it. After he created a new temple in Fulai Mountain, he was named Dinglin Yizhi. If this is the case, then the name of this temple, Dinglin, is in the process of being cleaned up.

定林寺
定林寺

Summing up the above, we can draw the following conclusion: Yanhe did not "died unexpectedly" after he became a monk, but soon inhabited Juxian, his hometown. It is said that when he "died unexpectedly", it is likely that he returned to the north; the founding of Dinglin Temple in Ju County and the return of Yanhe's monk in the same period; the establishment of Dinglin Temple in Ju County by Liu Yanhe After the temple was built, he had studied here, and eventually died in Sisi Temple, and was also buried in Sisi Temple.

Qi Huangong

浮来山名人-齐桓公画像

Qi Huangong

Prince Gong (huán) (716 BC—October 7, 643 BC), the head of the Spring and Autumn Five Patriarchs, reigned from 685 BC to 643 BC, the 15th monarch of the Qi Kingdom in the Spring and Autumn Period, surnamed Jiang , Name Xiaobai. It is the twelfth grandson of Jiang Taigong Lu Shang, the third son of Qixi Gonglufu, and his mother is a Weiguo. After the eldest son of Qi Xiong, Qi Xianggong, and his nephew, grandson ignorance, died in civil strife successively, the son Xiaobai and the son succeeded in the battle for the position, that is, the monarchy was Qi Huangong.
Huan Gong served as Guan Zhongwei, implemented reforms, and implemented a system of military-political integration and military-civilian integration. Huan Gong summoned the princes of the princes of Song and Chen in Zhen (present-day Juancheng, Shandong) in 681 BC, and was the first prince to serve as the leader in history. At that time, the princes of the Central Plains China suffered from the attack of tribes such as Rongdi, so Qi Huangong played the banner of "Respecting King Wang Yi", striking Shanrong in the north, and Chu in the south, becoming the first overlord in the Central Plains, which was rewarded by Zhou Tianzi. However, in his later years, he was stunned. After Guan Zhong's death, he hired villains such as Yi Ya and Shu Diao, and eventually starved to death in a civil strife.
Don't forget
"Lv's Spring and Autumn, Direct Admonishment": "Let the public never Don't forget to go to Juye."

Original text: Qi Huangong, Guan Zhong, Uncle Bao, Ning Qixiang and Yin. Jiuhan, Huan Gong said that Uncle Bao said: "Why don't you make a long life?" Uncle Bao said in a cup: "It is Juye who makes the public go away, and Luye is the bondage that makes Guan Zhongwu, and Ning Qi forgets it Fan Niu lives in the car. "Huan Gong avoids the seat and prays again: "Neither the widow nor the doctor can forget the words of the Master, then Qi Guozhi's society is fortunate to be lucky!" . You can talk with words, so you can dominate.
As the saying goes: hitting people does not hit faces, scolding people do not expose short. Especially on the wine table, drinking is in the beginning. But this time, Bao Shuya actually opened a circle, the first one is the "head boss" who holds his own political future-Qi Huangong, Jiang Xiaobai, who is the head of the Spring and Autumn Five Powers: today is well-known, and he had been with the funeral dog. The same is hiding under the fence of Ju Guo; next, the "Reminder" announcement order Guan Zhong printed in front of him: Don’t forget the taste of being tied up in a prison car and waiting for death; finally, Ning Qi, in no particular order: rushed to feed cattle , Remember your origin.
This is the source of the idiom "Don't forget in Ju".

Liu Xie

刘勰

Liu Xie

Liu Xie (approximately 465-520 AD), word Yanhe, lived in the Liang Dynasty of the Southern Dynasty during the Northern and Southern Dynasties, a literary theorist and literary critic in Chinese history. The Han nationality was born in Jingkou (now Zhenjiang) and his ancestral home is in Dashenzhuang (Dashen Liuzhuang), Dongguan Town, Juxian County (now Juxian County, Shandong Province). He was well-known as the county magistrate, infantry lieutenant, and priest in the palace. In his later years, he founded the (North) Dinglin Temple in Fulai Mountain, Ju County, Shandong. Although Liu Xie has held various official positions, his name is not displayed in an official, but in the name of Wen Zhang, a "Wen Xin Diao Long" has established his position in the history of Chinese literature and the history of literary criticism.
Biographies

In the early years of Song and Tai in the Southern and Northern Dynasties (AD 465), Liu Xie was born in Jingkou (now Zhenjiang), with the word Yanhe, and his origin is in Dongguan (now in Juxian County, Shandong Province). [1] Grandfather Ling Zhen, Song Sikong's younger brother. His father's name was Liu Shang, and he had served as the captain of Yueqi. Liu Xie became an orphan very early, he was angry and strong, and loved studying. Because the family was too poor to marry a wife, he lived with a monk in Shamen. After more than ten years, he was proficient in those scriptures. He sorted out these scriptures by category, transcribed them, and wrote a preface to the scriptures. Now the scriptures in Dinglin Temple are all written and revised by Liu Xie. In the early days of the Tianjian, Liu Xie began to serve as a petition for Feng Chao, part-time secretary of the Chinese army Linchuan Wang Hong, and then was promoted to serve as a cacao in the army. When he served as the county magistrate of Taimo County, his political performance was clean and honest. As a consulting expert in the East Palace, Liu Xie suggested to the emperor that both Buddhism and Taoism should be reformed together with other religious sacrifices. The emperor issued an edict to discuss the proposal and adopted it as suggested by Liu Xie. Later promoted to infantry lieutenant. He was ordered by Emperor Huihui to write a text of a revised text in Dinglin Temple, and then asked to become a monk. The emperor allowed the monk to be renamed Huidi. He died soon.

At the age of 32, he began to write "Wen Xin Diao Long", which lasted five years. [2]

文心雕龙

Wenxin Diaolong

There is much to say about death. One said that he died between Liang's first year (520 AD) and two years (521 AD), and one said that he died between Liang Datong's four years (538 AD) and five years (AD 539).

Wenxin Diaolong

"Wen Xin Diao Long" has 10 volumes and 50 articles. Divided into upper and lower parts, 25 articles each. The book includes four important aspects, written by Liu Xie in Nanshan, Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu Province. In the upper part, there are 5 articles from "The Original Dao" to "Distinction of Sao". The core is 3 articles of "The Original Dao", "Sheng Zheng" and "Zong Jing". 20 articles from "Ming" to "Secretary". The lower part, 20 articles from "Shensi" to "Seek". "Time Series", "Talent", "Company", "Chengqi" and other four articles. There are a total of 49 articles in the above four aspects, plus the final description of the author's motivation, attitude and principle for writing this book, a total of 50 articles. [3]
Literary history

The concept of literary history in "Wen Xin Diao Long" believes that the development and change of literature will ultimately be influenced by the times and social and political life, bringing the previous theories in this aspect to a new height. At the same time, Liu Xie also attached great importance to the development law of literature itself. In "Tongbian", he put forward "Tongbian" based on Yang Xiong's views on "because of" "revolution", that is, the relationship between inheritance and innovation in literary creation. He asked the writers to make bold innovations: "new careers" and "times must be fruitful, and no chance to be timid". It is also emphasized that any "change" or innovation can not be separated from "pass", that is, inheritance. The so-called "common" refers to the literary convention: "There is a common sense, and the body must be based on the truth." Only when the literary creation knows all kinds of "history", will there be "commonness is not lacking" ("Tongbian"), "Dongxiao" Emotional change, Qu Zhao style, then new ideas and engravings. Only by combining and unifying "tong" with "change", "cause" and "reform", can literary creation be infinite. The road, the source of inexhaustible drinking" ("Tongbian"), has achieved considerable and healthy development.[3]

Comment

According to "Preface", the five articles from "Time Series" to "Cheng Qi" are criticisms. However, two of them, "Time Series" and "Seek", have both content on creation theory and criticism. "Time Series" reviews the writers' works and their development from the aspects of political appearance and social atmosphere of the past dynasties; "Colors" reviews the "Book of Songs", "Chu Ci", Han Fu and "since modern times" from the perspective of natural scenery and changes in the four orders The creative situation. Comparing the two articles, "Time Series" focuses on literary criticism, and "Seek" focuses on literary creation.